Models and Measurements

Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry Model (SIC).
SIC is a 1D atmospheric model that combines the complex ion chemistry scheme of the ionospheric D region with the chemistry of middle atmospheric minor neutral gases. We have used it extensively in studies of direct effects of particle precipitation in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere, with special focus on ozone and related species. For more information, go to the SIC web pages.

FinROSE Chemistry-Transport Model.
FinROSE is a global 3-dimensional CTM designed for middle atmospheric studies We use it to study both direct and indirect effects of particle precipitation, for example NOx production and transport. For more information, see Salmi et al. (2011).

Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM)
WACCM is a comprehensive numerical model, spanning the range of altitude from the Earth's surface to the thermosphere. We are currently setting it up at FMI and plan to use it in particle precipitation studies. For more information, see the WACCM web pages.

Global Ozone Monitoring by Occulation of Stars (GOMOS)
GOMOS is a stellar occultation instrument on board the European Space Agency's Envisat Satellite. We use it to study both direct and indirect effects of solar proton events on NOx and ozone in the mesosphere and stratosphere. For more information, go to the ESA GOMOS web pages.

Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt (Dynamic) Deposition - VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortium (AARDDVARK)
AARDDVARK provides continuous long-range observations of the lower-ionosphere. We use it to study ionospheric changes during particle precipitation. For more information, see the AARDDVARK web pages.

Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)
MLS is an instrument on board the NASA's Aura satellite. We use it to study the direct effects of particle precipitation in the mesosphere, e.g. changes in HOx and HNO3. For more information, go to the NASA MLS web pages.

EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radars
EISCAT radars are located in the northern Scandinavia and measure ionospheric properties, e.g. electron density. We have used them to study changes in the D region during particle precipitation. For more information, see the EISCAT web pages.

ERA-40
ERA-40 is a re-analysis meteorological dataset from the ECMWF. We use it to study atmospheric dynamical responses to solar forcing in the stratosphere and troposphere. For more information, see the ECMWF ERA-40 web pages.

Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA)
KAIRA is a LOFAR based radio telescope covering a frequency band of 10-270 MHz with two broad-band antennae (LBA and HBA). The telescope can be used for large variety of scientific applications related to atmospheric physics, solar and solar wind observations and astoronomy. In the CHAMOS related works, KAIRA is used as a EISCAT VHF receiver and a spectral riometer. For more information, see KAIRA web pages.

ERG (Exploration in energization and Radiation in Geospace)
ERG is a geospace exploration project to elucidate dynamics of space radiation environment as well as space storms. The project consists of JAXA satellite mission, ground-network observations and modeling/integrated studies. Precipitations of energetic particles and resultant variations in the upper/middle atmosphere is one of important subjects of this project. For more information, see ERG at JAXA and ERG at I-SEE.